Thursday, June 11, 2020

Supplier Relationships Importance And Supply Chain Management - Free Essay Example

In todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s increasing economic environment, organisations are looking for new techniques to improve their competitive advantage. The focus of my research is in the area of purchasing which have now become a strategic function and a key reason in positioning competitively among all other competitors. The paper discusses that in recent years, the relationships between buyers and suppliers have been continuously receiving a considerable attention for effective operations within organisations. Traditionally, supplier-buyer relationships were regarded as adversarial, armà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s length transactions. However, the approach towards managing this relationship is changing and moving towards a more collaborative approach due to the fact that now suppliers are important sources to gain competitive advantage to operate in global markets in terms of their expertise, knowledge and ability of sharing risks. [Research paper à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Journal] The research aims to provide an understanding of supplier relationship management, factors of supplier evaluation and selection process, and the elements that contribute to the establishment of a productive customer/vendor relationships. Such a study is important for buyers to build and maintain effective relationships with their suppliers for consistent cost reductions while working together to mutually create revenues and other benefits. The paper recommends that this information may work as a reference guideline for buyers when initiating cooperative relationships with their supply sources resulting in advanced purchasing and strategic supply chain management in their organisation. The research method adopted in this dissertation is secondary exploring various business journals, business websites, textbooks and articles. Due to continuous new product developments, product innovations and increase in costs, managing supplier relationships will further become crucial in the near future. Due to this reason, therefore, this paper discusses the requirement of supplier relationships and how this shift in organisational strategy towards building relations has and will going to change the employeeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s role, companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s processes and organisational goals. The findings from this research provides an evidence of how companies have improved their supply chain operations through understanding the importance to develop effective supplier relationships as part of their core business activity for not only to achieve success within procurement department but also to successfully complete other supply chain cycle such as maintaining production flow at all times, planning accurately, inventory handling, logistical issues and achieving financial benefits. Examples included findings from large organisations of Hong Kong, Rolls Royce, GE, and Japanese firm Toyota. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this research is that every organisation must emphasise the need to actually develop world class suppliers that helps in building long-term relationships, reduction in costs, improved QCDS (quality, cost, delivery and service) criteria, improved customer service, mutual information sharing, reducing the NPI (new product inspection) costs and becoming world class organisation in the market. Introduction Nowadays, the majority of Organisations believe that their companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s real assets are embedded in the quality of the relationships shared between the business and their stakeholders such as clients or customers, employees and suppliers. Developing and managing supplier relationship will be the main subject throughout this project. The objective of this research is to investigate the importance of the need to focus more on building collaborative relationships with their strategic suppliers by large manufacturing companies. With increase in globalisation and restructuring of several organisations, procurementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s role has changed focusing more towards costs, quality, flexibility and technology. [Herbig and Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Hara, 1995; Goh and Lau, 1999] In the previous years (traditionally), purchasing was considered as a secretarial function in which the buyer-supplier relationships were viewed as being adversarial and unsurprisingly results in a win/lose outcome. Before, business operations from manufacturing to assembling the finished goods were prepared in-house but now many organisations have moved towards a more combined approach where manufacturing firms have started concentrating more on their core competencies only and rest outsourcing nationally and internationally to satisfy their customer expectations. Organisations are going lean i.e. working towards continuous improvement, adopting just-in time and total quality management and eliminating wastes. This highlighted the requirement for most of the lean organisations to grow cooperative supplier-buyer relationships to achieve real productivity, improved design and quality that are unattainable unless the supplying partners assist in product innovation. Hence, several manufacturers have recognized their ability to become world class competitors based on establishing high levels of trust and cooperation among their suppliers. [They and Briggs (1994)] For example, highlighting the case of Rolls Royce, the engine manufacturer, that outsources 70% of their material from external supply chain and thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s the reason Rolls Royce try to encourage their suppliers to work openly and jointly contributing to their performance. Rolls Royce belief in building good supplier relationships assures quality and competitiveness to their product offerings and helps to achieve customer standards. The growing face of domestic and global competition has led to understand the manufacturing companies to practise global sourcing which is a strategy to improve companies competitiveness in the international market through reducing costs, improving quality, increased exposure to universal technology, and improving delivery and reliability. A à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"connection or associationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ is known as a relationship. Relationships are said to be when individuals, organisations and internal or external groups to an enterprise interact. At recent times, relationship marketing describes long-term marketing strategy that emphasise on building and maintaining long-term relationships with customers rather than just focusing on à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"one-timeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ sale approach. At business level, relationship marketing is applied to variety of purchasing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" supplier relationships in the context of a broader network of interconnected purchasing, supplier and competitor organisations. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Supplier relationship is defined as a systematic approach to supplier evaluation, selection and ongoing relationship management with the goal of cutting the costs of goods and services boosting profits.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Supplier relationship management is a proactive approach of an ongoing business links to secure a competitive advantage within the organisation, focusing more on overall relationships between the supplier and the customer (buying organisation) rather than focusing on specific contracts. The idea is to develop trust and understanding of each otherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s requirements and interests while providing assistance to each other. For example, Rolls Royce sends their experts to their sub-contract suppliers to improve their technology and performance standards. Such relationships bring profit and provide competitive advantage. [] Today, most of the companies have realised that doing business jointly with their strategic suppliers will enhance their organisational ability to respond quickly to demand changes, focus on core business only and hence, results in implementing best practises. For example, Rolls Royce believes their supplier make very essential contribution to their business performance as over 70% of their manufacturing costs comes from external supply sources. focus more on their core competencies such as encouraging suppliers to work with transparency, openly and together to enhance continuous improvements. rather than Small to Medium size Enterprises and many local businesses use Transactional Purchasing whereas Large Enterprises use Relationship Purchasing to compete strongly in this economic climate. Transactional Purchasing Relationship purchasing Focus on short, discrete purchasing Focus on supplier retention Short-term orientation Long-term orientation Arms length Closeness Simple buyer-seller relationship Complicated, including internal relationships Emphasis on price, quality and delivery in the offered product No Innovation Emphasis on price, quality, delivery other factors, like innovative design as a collaborative exercise b/w purchaser and supplier Moderate supplier contacts High level of supplier contact with each contact being used to gain information strengthen the relationship Little sharing of information Significant sharing of information, including cost information and transparency Introducing Supply chain management The project is focused on process for choosing world class suppliers, importance of building supplier relationships, various supplier development approaches and process of negotiation required in purchasing that plays a vital role in todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s supply chain management. Explaining what is supply chain management and its various elements that are necessary for the movement of goods and services within the business. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Supply chain management consists of the intra à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and inter-organisational co-ordination of business functions that act as both transformative and support functionsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. This emphasises managing supply chain effectively must be a key activity within the businesses. [Mentzer et al. (2001)] Supply chain combines flow of materials, goods, and information (includes money) that floats within and between organisations linking with a variety of tangible and intangible facilitators, e.g. relationships, processes, activities and integrated information systems. Different views of supply chains are implemented in terms of a process when operations are emphasised, a logistical channel when emphasises marketing, a value chain whey looking at value added activities, and a demand chain when considering customer satisfaction. [Peck H. (2006)] Key elements of supply chain The key elements of supply chain are that links with each other by the movement of products. The following explains that supply chain starts and ends with the customer: [] Customer à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This is the customer that starts the value chain by deciding to make a purchase of a particular product for example, in an aviation industry procuring turbine blades or a fan shaft which is offered for sale by an organisation. At this stage, the customer contacts the sales team and places purchase order with a right quantity and delivered on a right date. If in case, this product needs manufacturing then the purchase order includes a requirement that must be fulfilling by the production facility. Planning à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The requirement for planning occurs when customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s purchase order is received and processed with other existing orders. Production plans are created by the planning department to generate products to accomplish the customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s order. If manufacturing requires, then raw materials are purchased to complete the process. Purchasing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The list of materials e.g. raw materials and services is obtained which is required by the production department to complete the purchase order. Then purchasing team issues purchase orders to procure raw material from selected suppliers on their manufacturing site on a requisite date. Inventory à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The raw materials that are received from suppliers are checked for quality and moved into the warehouse. The invoice is received for the parts that are delivered by the supplier and then materials are stored until there is a demand from a production area. Production à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" According to the production plan, the raw materials from the inventory are moved into the production area where product manufacturing takes place and creates the finished product. Once the parts are completed, they are again sent back to the warehouse and stored prior to delivery to the ultimate customer. Transportation à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Logistics department then finds the most efficient shipping method in order to achieve on-time delivery at the right date mentioned by the customer. After goods are received by the customer, an invoice is sent by the organisation (supplier) for delivered products. Outlining Case study: GE-Aviation In this project, there will be discussion on relationship purchasing within aviation industry considering GE Aviation as a case study. Suggesting methods of procurement and ways of maintaining GEà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s existing and new relationships with suppliers. On-line procurement is one of the major processes that I will be focusing in my project which GE adopts within their business that not only reduces the cost and saves time but also provides the right amount of communication with its suppliers at the right time. For example, GE-Aviation has its own department for RB211 jumbo jet engine where there are teams responsible for engineering, operations, purchasing and billing. The engine gets repaired and maintained on site. For RB211 engine type, GEà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s biggest supplier is Rolls Royce who is the OEMà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s and can provide material many times. Using SAP software within the whole organisation saves a huge amount of time for purchasing transactions and also makes easy for GE purchasing team to analyse demand raised and provide forecasting to their suppliers for each product by just looking into the system and working through its historical past. GE uses Relationship Purchasing in which they believe to maximise their revenue it is very important to have good supplier relationships. Some of the key approaches/strategies required before working towards building relationships are as follows: Selecting a world class supplier Companies that outsources internationally their materials opens the opportunity to identify potential suppliers, evaluate and reasonably short list them that result with the best supplier. This is considered as one of the most important process to perform by the procurement team that aims to choose the best supplier that ensures reliable supplies with low risk involved and maximises the overall value to the buyer. The following are the seven key steps involved in supplier evaluation and selection process: (Fig 7.5 Supplier evaluation and selection process [pg 163]) Recognise the need for supplier selection The first step is to recognise the actual need for selection of supplier. Purchasing team must work with new product development department in order to recognise future buying behaviours. Purchasing groups proactively select suppliers and anticipate demands rather than wait until a demand rises. The process to start this evaluation arises due to the following scenarios: Through new product development Poor performance received from existing internal and external suppliers Closure of the contract Procuring new tools and equipments Thinking to expand business into new markets or products Due to inadequate capacity of existing suppliers Throughout outsourcing and re-engineering analyses Deciding to reduce the size of the supply base Identifying the main sourcing requirements All the way through evaluation process, procurement team must keep an eye on what they are intended to do. Acquiring materials is not just important but also focus to meet specific requirements set by the other internal customer and indirectly by other supply chain members. For example, an aviation company like GE that makes engines has to buy all the machinery and spare parts along with buyers taking care to ensure a perfect quality products are delivered on time. Establishing sourcing strategy Developing purchasing strategies results in long term alliances that buyers look each time to compete in todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s growing competition. Several vital strategic decisions that affect the selection of suppliers are: Picking single or multiple suppliers Creating short-term or long-term contracts Supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s wish to develop working partnerships rather than armà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s length relations Working with suppliers that can provide support with product designs rather than those who cannot modify designs Having choice of local, domestic, foreign or global suppliers Therefore, sourcing strategies and policies must be carefully re-evaluated during supplier selection as requirements changes frequently in shorter times because of changing market conditions, changing consumer preferences and accustomed corporate goals. Identifying potential suppliers This stage identifies a list of suppliers that can actually have the capability to deliver of what is required by the customer. Buyers can use various numbers of sources to develop the preliminary list of supply sources by a quick search of company websites as well as long and detailed search for companies that can support with design and make specialised products. A rule of thumb must take place to determine the effort to be used into supplier selection by comparing the existing supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s efficiency and strategic importance of an item because too much effort and expensive resources are wasted; too little effort and potential suppliers might be missed in this initial search criteria. Following are the sources of information widely-used to identify potential suppliers: Current suppliers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Using existing suppliers who are already on the preferred list which are consistently meeting buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s requirements that reduces the purchasers time and effort in evaluation of supplier capabilities. But at the same time, existing supplier may not always provide the world class long term results and that is the reason why organisations scan information continuously to recognize potential new sources. Sales representatives and agents à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Marketing information received from these individuals can become a valuable source of information for new product offerings. Buyers keep this information in their file for future reference even if there is no urgent requirement for a supplier service. Internet searches à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Nowadays suppliers launch customer websites as part of their marketing approach and help the buyers with detailed information from a simple search of possible suppliers. Various other websites can also help in discovering and assessing important information like reviews, comparisons, comments, analyses and case studies of potential suppliers. Experience à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Experienced individuals working within purchasing team generally carries a wide knowledge about various capable suppliers as experienced buyers have already worked in a particular industry for many years and familiar with the main suppliers and their features. Internal sources à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Operating different business units within large organisations, each may have their own procurement department. Therefore, other units in the same organisation becomes a valuable source of information exchange to buyers through informal meetings, formal team sessions, an internal database, purchasing newsletters, etc. Limit suppliers in the selection pool At this stage, the procurement team must consolidate and analyse the information gathered on potential supply sources that helps them to make informed decisions. Getting a long list of suppliers is just the initial task but buyers then have to eliminate the weakest suppliers until they attain the strong shortlist. Therefore, the final supplier is then selected from this list. The following are the entry qualifiers features that influence buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s final decision [Howard (1998)]: Financial strength Appropriate business strategy Strong supportive management Proven manufacturing capability Design capability There are also many reasons that influence buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision to procure material on the following basis: Buying directly from the original manufacturer or distributor à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Original equipment manufacturers mostly offer lower prices that avoid the costs of wholesalers and retailers along with profit margins. The final choice must be considered on the basis of four factors including the size of the purchase, the manufacturerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s policies of direct sales, availability of storage at buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s facility, and the required additional services. Local, national, international and global suppliers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Choosing international suppliers are more favourable as they usually offers the best price along with technical support but these have to be balanced by higher shipping costs, stocks, communication problems and common risks involved. Also, choosing local suppliers are considered more responsive to fluctuating demands, small deliveries and regular changes in purchase orders using Just-in-time method that not only supports local suppliers and allows the buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s to enhance local economy but also helps in building community goodwill. Large or small suppliers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Usually buyers focus on supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s capability to do the work rather than selecting on the basis of its size. But a buyer must keep in mind the unexpected increase in demands that can only be dealt by larger firms providing extra capacity to overcome these fluctuations. At the same time, in order to create a diversified supply base, buyers intentionally deal with smaller suppliers. Multiple or single sourcing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" When there are numerous different suppliers available then it becomes very difficult to make a decision of how many to use? Most of the organisations have chosen a trend to reduce the supply base that will benefit them accordingly. Determining method to select supplier This is the last stage where buyers are left with four to five suppliers in their shortlist and decide to evaluate these remaining organisations by looking at the alternatives in more detail for example, using supplier-provided information, supplier/customer visits, preferred list of suppliers and third-party information. Supplier-provided information à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Detailed information can be acquired through requesting price quotations. Information received from quotations are then used to understand the product description and supply which is then followed by another requests of a detailed cost breakdown of the price quoted by suppliers initially that must include the costs of labour, materials, overheads and profit as buyers also require operational details to finally evaluate them. Supplier visits à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" One of the most efficient ways of getting an overall view of supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s capabilities and performance is to visit supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s facilities by a cross-functional team. Generally, these visits are expensive and time consuming so a buyer must balance their desire to gather as much information as possible confidentially. The following table shows important information points that a buyer must collect during its visit: Management capability Quality management Technology levels Planning and scheduling effectiveness Financial strength Personnel relations E-business capabilities Sophistication and efficiency of operations ISO certifications Skills, knowledge and experience of workforce Evidence of good management and housekeeping Types of inventory Nature of the goods inwards, stores and outwards areas Environmental practices Employee employment contracts Any significant changes planned or expected Contact details of key decision makers Use of preferred suppliers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This is a list of suppliers created by the purchasers to reward their best suppliers that consistently meets their strict performance criteria. The list can also be used as an incentive to improve the existing supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s performance and assessed accordingly. External or third-party information à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This consists of all the other information available about a potential supplier. For example, Total quality management is a system that insists suppliers to meet the quality standards as similar to buyers and generates a flow of related information throughout the supply chain. Selecting supplier and signing agreement This is the final step to choose the supplier followed by signing a contract. This includes different purchasing orders required for routine and major items, i.e. using standard purchase orders for routine items whereas, detailed negotiation is required to agree on specific details for major items that increases the complexity in the purchase order. Supplier evaluation criteria After considering various steps in selecting suppliers, the buying organisation must analyse the following questions with the supply organisation in order to progress outside their traditional purchasing relationships and possibilities for long term relationships with them: [Spekman (1988)] Has the supplier signified a dedication or willingness for a longer term relationship? Is the supplier enthusiastic to perform resources to develop this relationship? Is the supplier willing or able to participate at the early stage or throughout the stage of product design? Has supplier brought any unique service to the business? Is the supplier showed their interests or commitment towards customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s problems and effectively solving them together? Is the supplier is interested in improvements and innovations in the operations? Is there any openness of sharing and exchanging information between both companies? How much knowledgeable is the supplier about the customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s industry and business? Is the need for confidentially exchanged information taken seriously? Supplier management and development In todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s time, the need to improve supplier performance is open in large or small organisations and for this reason; the purchasing teams must introduce a supplier relationship management (SRM) approach to achieve their organisational goals and success in global purchases of technology. Therefore, this calls for managing resources efficiently throughout supply chain collaborations, dedication required from supply managers, creating standardised best practices effectively and tools required for tracking and evaluating the results. The process must begin with effective supplier performance measures required to undertake strategic supply or procurement decisions for the organisation. [Minahan T. And Vigorose M. (2002)] Effective supplier performance measurements What to measure The factors important to assess the performance includes: Delivery performance à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The purchase orders that are sent to suppliers involves all the appropriate information on deliveries, with quantities, lead times and due dates. Therefore, it is buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s responsibility to check regularly that how well a supplier actually meets their expected conditions. Cost performance à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" There are many ways that can measure cost performances for example, monitoring real price delivered by the supplier after adjusting increase in the prices (inflation). Quality performance à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" In order to measure quality, the best criteria for buyers is to check that products are delivered in 100% perfect condition with no defects. This also includes comparing previous performances, latest performance with mutually agreed standards and various other figures. Other qualitative factors in supplier performance Factor Explanation Problem solving Supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s attention to provide solutions to the problem Technical skills Comparing supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s manufacturing capacity with other business suppliers Reporting progress Supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s incomplete reporting of existing problems and identifying and communicating other potential problems Corrective action Supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s timely response to requests for corrective actions and requests for changes Cost-reduction plans Supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s enthusiasm to find techniques that helps to reduce the total purchase cost New-product development support Supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s capability to reduce time and cost required for new product development Buyer/seller compatibility Rating subjectively how well a purchasing firm and a supplier work together Therefore, the above are various other factors that help the buyers to measure the supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s technical ability and closeness of both partiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ relationships. Reporting frequency à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" This includes preparing reports to provide a clear feedback to supplier on their performance. Purchasing management must communicate with their buyers to send these reports by reviewing them weekly, monthly, quarterly or annually which is then followed with more face-to-face team meeting that reviews their actual performance, discussion on targets, identify potential improvements, examine changes, and so on. Any problems (for example, supplier fails to meet the required standard) occurred during crucial time must be addressed with special reports and meetings to avoid any financial and operational problems. Use of measurement data à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Procurement staff can make use of data collected from its measurement systems in many ways including: Identifying suppliers which are not meeting the performance goals and highlighting areas that calls for improvements, followed by corrective actions taken to raise the performance to acceptable levels or else finding new suppliers. It helps in discovering excellent performances achieved from supplier which then helps identify preferred suppliers that qualify for long term alliances. It also recognises the worst performing suppliers that are continuously not improving and needs to be removed from supply base whereas offering more work to superior suppliers. Supplier measurement techniques à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" There are three techniques discussed for evaluating performance of suppliers, each differs in their use, level of subjectivity, resources required and implementing cost. Categorical techniques à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" These techniques considers a particular aspect of performance, for example lead time and classifies a set of categories for performance rating as excellent, good, fair or poor and therefore, helps buyers in deciding which supplier is good or bad. This is an easiest system of measurement, easy to use, comparatively inexpensive and also the most subjective. There are some drawbacks of using this technique as they do not provide a clear analysis of performance, slower than automated systems and regarded as the lowest of the three techniques in terms of reliability. Scoring model This method overcomes the subjectivity of categorical technique by calculating a weighted score for different performance categories. This is more reliable and requires reasonable implementation cost providing flexibility for buyers to change the categories included as well as weights allocated to each. Cost-based techniques à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"This technique is the most comprehensive that can help the buying organisation to look for the total cost required for doing business with a particular supplier by identifying the lowest purchase price is not always the lowest cost of acquisition. Hence, this technique works through collecting data from the purchasing firmà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s information system, analysing the total cost including the additional occurring costs whenever a supplier fails to perform as per expected by the buyer. This can be calculated using formula of supplier performance index (SPI) SPI = Total purchase costs + Non-performance costs Total purchase costs Supplier Development Approach Supplier development is an approach which was initially started in Toyota, Nissan and Honda in the 1930à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s time. Toyotaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s emphasised the need to treat suppliers as a major part of their company though working together to develop their businesses collectively. The approach consists of all the initiatives that buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s can undertake to improve supplier relationships, performance or capabilities to meet the buyerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s short or long-term supply requirements. [Sako, M. (2004)] Procedures required for supplier development are as follows: [Handfield et al., 1998] Step 1: Identification of critical items/parts for development It is not important for every organisation to seek development approach within their business but when we talk about companies operating within aviation industry automatically needs to develop these approaches as work is involved on engines which require careful attention to crucial and specific parts. Following are some example of questions that must be answered yes by the procurement team in order to adopt the supplier development process: Do material procured account for more than 50% of product value? Is the existing or potential supplier can bring competitive advantage? Do you currently procure, or intend to procure on the basis of total cost or considering initial cost only? Can existing suppliers are able to meet the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s competitive needs for 5 years from now? Do the company wants the most responsive suppliers to demand and supply change? Is the buying organisation willing to become more responsive to the supplierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s needs? Does the buyer intend to treat their suppliers as partners in the business? Do the procurement staff plans for open and long-term trustworthy relationships with suppliers? Therefore, if the answers to above questions is yes, then it is worth introducing resources into supplier development programme followed by focusing on core activities first, for example analysing and defining a portfolio of the purchased critical items (materials) where solid benefits can be achieved from supplier development. Step 2: Identifying critical suppliers for development This step involves targeting those suppliers that needs development. The most common method could be the routine analysis of supplier performance such as using measurement approaches discussed before in the project. Suppliers producing unique and essential products with a difficulty to replace them if they donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t achieve the pre-determined targets are considered for development. Step 3: Forming cross-functional development teams Case study à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Accentureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s strategic supplier relationship management Accenture is a global management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company. They collaborate with their clients to help them become high-performance businesses and governments. The Accentureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s supply chain department works with customers across a broad range of industries to develop and execute operational strategies that allows profitable growth within existing and new markets. Their commitment is to help customers achieve high performance through supply chain excellence with a combination of global industry expertise and skills in supply chain strategy, sourcing and procurement, supply chain planning, manufacturing design, fulfilment and service management to help organisations transform their supply chain capabilities. Accenture defines SRM à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“A systematic approach to manage suppliers in order to optimize the value delivered through the relationship over its life cycleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. In todayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s economic environment, every organisation must adopt strategic approach to supplier relationship. Accentureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s strategic SRM methodology helps their customers to handle procurement costs and risks to achieve high performance in both good and bad economic times. Factors that emphasise the need for more strategic approach to SRM à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Increasing global competition and shorter product life cycles continues to call the need for strategic SRM. Factors are as follows: Volatile commodity prices

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Social Institutions and Manipulation Exposed in A...

As teenagers deviate from the constraining grasp of their parents, they begin to establish their own identity through decisions; however, their development of self-identification is frequently hindered by manipulation of societal institutions such as: justice system, religion, and media. Anthony Burgess, author of A Clockwork Orange, establishes the idea of freewill and how it is suppressed when Alex, the main protagonist, undergoes the manipulative Ludovicos technique, religious lectures, and social norms influenced by media- used to instill pain when Alexs desires violence/music and finding salvation, which is similar to the treatment of criminals in our society; ultimately utilized to mitigate crime, but also suppresses freewill†¦show more content†¦Another foible implicitly tied to the Justice System is fear administered by police officials. By enforcing the law they constantly remind society that there are certain inadmissible actions, which lead to repercussions; in o ther words, they want citizens to be orderly and to not transgress against society, even if our intentions do not abide to the law. This is akin to Alex, the main protagonist in the novel A Clockwork Orange, by inflicting internal pain through Ludovicos technique, which is administered by prison doctors to manipulate and suppress Alexs truculent desire. Despite the reassurance offered by the justice system, they are, in some way, manipulating our decisions to serve the greater good of society, while surreptitiously serving as dictators to society and criminals. Therefore, the Justice system, with their subtle constraints, has a resounding effect on the choices made by individuals. Often times, pondering individuals in search of salvation acquire their peace-of-mind by succumbing to religious movements to atone for their sins; however, religion has always been a tool of oppression since its advent because followers grow to acknowledge their

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Bonds Definition and Examples in Chemistry

In chemistry, a bond or chemical bond is a link between atoms in molecules  or compounds and between ions and molecules in crystals. A bond represents a lasting attraction between different atoms, molecules or ions. Why Bonds Form Most of bonding behavior can be explained by the attraction between two opposite electrical charge. The electrons of an atom or ion are attracted to their own positively-charged nucleus (containing protons), yet also to the nuclei of nearby atoms. Species that participate in chemical bonds are more stable when the bond is formed, typically because they had an imbalance of charge (greater or fewer number of electrons than protons) or because their valence electrons did not fill or half-fill electron orbitals. Examples of Chemical Bonds The two main types of bonds are  covalent bonds  and  ionic bonds. Covalent bonding is where atoms share electrons more or less equally between each other. In an ionic bond, an electron from one atom spends more time associated with the nucleus and electron orbitals of the other atom (essentially donated). However, pure covalent and ionic bonding is relatively rare. Usually a bond is intermediate between ionic and covalent. In a polar covalent bond, electrons are shared, but the electrons participating in the bond are more attracted to one atom than to the other. Another type of bonding is a metallic bond. In a metallic bond, electrons are donated to an electron sea between a group of atoms. Metallic bonding is very strong, but the fluid nature of the electrons allows for a high degree of electrical and thermal conductivity.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Concept Analysis Walker And Avant - 1031 Words

Concept has been defined as â€Å"symbolic statement describing a phenomena or class of phenomena (Kim, 2000,p.15). It can be theoretical or non theoretical like hope, love and desire or body temperature, pain (McEwen Willis, 2011) the words like grief, empathy, power, job satisfaction or a phrase like health promoting behaviors or maternal attachment. Concept analysis refers to the rigorous process of bringing clarity to the definition of the concept used in science (McEwen Willis, p, 51). According to McEwen (2011), the purpose of concept analysis is to clarify, recognize, and define concepts that describe phenomena. Method of analysis There are several methods of analyzing the concepts. The purpose of concept analysis is to help the nurses to identify the trends and development in patient care. In depth analysis of these trends and developments helps to formulate measures to provide holistic patient care (â€Å"Grand canyon university†2013). Walker and Avant introduced the process of concept analysis in nursing in 1983.Walker and Avant (2005). They are concept analysis; concept synthesis and concept derivation explained three different processes to analyze the concept in nursing. According to McEwen (2011) Walker and Avant use concept analysis to clarify meanings of terms and define concepts with an excepted outcome of readers and writers communicating in a common language. The Walker and Avant’s method used in the concept analysis of concept of teamwork. Teamwork isShow MoreRelatedConcept Analysis : Walker And Avant1499 Words   |  6 PagesThere are many concepts in nursing theory that need furt her clarification. A concept analysis can provide a thorough explanation of a term in nursing theory that will help healthcare professionals better communicate. The Walker and Avant approach to perform a concept analysis was specifically formulated with nurses in mind (McEwen Wills, 2014). Walker and Avant proposed a concept analysis be used to further understand the meaning of a term or concept in anticipation that those using the term wouldRead MoreFlorence Nightingales Environmental Theory1400 Words   |  6 Pageslaws, nursing as a calling, nursing as both science and art, and nursing being different from medicine. Her major concepts included house health, personal cleanliness, chattering hopes and advices, among others. Nightingale saw the need to configure the environmental settings addressing the importance of fresh air, clean water, proper drainage and light. Cleanliness: Concept Analysis Despite our outstanding material, the world is full of many social conflicts. The human race is lacking essentialRead MoreConcept Analysis In Nursing1158 Words   |  5 PagesApplication of Concept Analysis to Practice In recent years there has been a movement in nursing to further understand the many terms (concepts) that are used. Concepts in nursing often seem vague or appear to have ambiguous meanings. For the purpose of this paper, we will take a deeper look at one specific concept, emotional intelligence, and examine a peer reviewed article that utilizes the Walker and Avant method to deconstruct the meaning. Emotional intelligence is asks the nurse to look atRead MoreA Concept Analysis On Compassion Fatigue1647 Words   |  7 PagesPurpose The purpose of conducting a concept analysis is to divide the components of a concept into separate individual parts for evaluation and clarification. Analysis of the internal structure, defining aspects, characteristics and interrelationships to the other components can be achieved by conducting a concept analysis. The basic purpose is a process to discover the similarities and differences between concepts (Walker Avant, 2005). The intent of the concept analysis on the subject of compassion fatigueRead MoreApplication Of Concept Analysis For Clinical Practice1149 Words   |  5 PagesApplication of concept analysis to clinical practice The concept has been defined as â€Å"symbolic statement describing a phenomena or class of phenomena â€Å"(Kim, 2000,p.15). It can be theoretical or non theoretical like hope, love and desire or body temperature, pain (McEwen Willis, 2011) the words like grief, empathy, power, job satisfaction or a phrase like health promoting behaviors or maternal attachment. Concept analysis mentions to the laborious process of bringing clarity to the definition ofRead MoreOrganizational Culture Within A Hospital Setting1693 Words   |  7 Pagespredicator of success. Purpose of the Concept Analysis Concept analysis helps to clarify vague or ambiguous concepts. It is a process to examine the structure and function of a concept (Walker Avant, 2011). There are numerous definitions and meanings of organizational culture in the literature. The purpose of this concept analysis paper is to develop a conceptual definition of Organizational Culture within a hospital setting. Historical Perspective of the Concept and Current Uses A thorough integratedRead MoreFamily Centered Care : A Concept Analysis Essay878 Words   |  4 Pages A Concept Analysis Jessica Giangrande, RN, BSN Georgia Southern University (intro) â€Å"Family-centered care† is a term heard often in healthcare settings and in nursing practice. Family-centered care has been recognized as being an integral part to patient health, satisfaction and health care quality (Kuo, et al, 2012). Family-centered care is implemented with the goal to increase partnerships between, families, patients and providers; and has been prioritized as a core-concept ofRead MoreConcept Analysis : Nursing Analysis1658 Words   |  7 PagesConcept Nursing Analysis The meaning of concept analysis is how nursing â€Å"explores the meaning of concepts to promote understanding† (McEwen, Wills, 2010). Pain continues to be a common problem within health care and one of the most treat problems when seeking medical treatment. The concept analysis consist of several steps to complete the process. The steps of the concept analysis are as follows: â€Å"1. select the concept 2. Determine the aims or purpose of analysis 3. Identify all the uses of theRead MoreConcept Analysis Critique of Homophobia in Nursing Essay3391 Words   |  14 Pagesanalysis critiqueRunning Head: CONCEPT ANALYSIS CRITIQUE Concept Analysis Critique of Christensen’s Homophobia in Nursing Using Walker and Avant’s Framework NUR 701-90 Nursing Theory The Sage Colleges Lori Ciafardoni-Hawkes RN, MSN/MEd November 17, 2010 Concept Analysis Critique of Christensen’s Homophobia in Nursing Using Walker and Avant’s Framework Introduction Concept analysis is discussed by Walker and Avant (2005) as a way to describe phenomena in nursing practice, as it â€Å"allowsRead MoreThe Fundamental Concept Of Trust1487 Words   |  6 Pages Since the introduction of concept analysis by Walker and Avant, theorists have stated its importance to nursing theory (Reed Crawford Shearer, 2012, p. 274). Trust is an essential concept in nursing, and has gained its importance both clinically and organizationally (McCabe Sambrook, 2014, p. 816). Trust it is an important feature of the nurse-patient relationship and is based on a dynamic process (McCabe Sambrook, 2014, p. 816). Structurally, trust is associated with various outcomes and

Marketing at vanguard - 1139 Words

Problem Definition Senior executives at Vanguard are evaluating their marketing strategy. In particular, they are looking at their approach to market segmentation, the organization of the marketing function, and the emphasis placed on marketing metrics in the corporate dashboard in light of an economic and stock market downturn. Situation Assessment Strengths  · Low cost high value; extremely low advertising spending and no large sales force.  · Customer focused  · High morale; Low employee turnover; high productivity  · Management involvement  · Horizontal organizational structure  · Use of Six Sigma methodologies to cut expenses, gain efficiencies  · Excellent use of benchmarking  · Centralized customer relationship management  · Use†¦show more content†¦How can Vanguard be expected to compete in face of other challenges such as institutional and regulatory hurdles as well as smaller populations overseas? Marketing segmentation was a competency that has worked for Vanguard in the past. However, customers may resent excessive categorization based on perceived investing habits or income extrapolations by Vanguard. The customers may view Vanguard as a Big Brother who pries into his or her personal lifestyle by monitoring their investment trends and then tailoring an investment plan for them with those assumptions. If you examine the potential target market sizing, the United States presents a wide array of opportunities with its varied ethnic groups. Companies such as Metlife and Citibank have done well by tapping into those markets and creating an investment niche. Rather than market segmentation based on investment habits, age or income; it may be advantageous for Vanguard to pursue these markets after conducting market tests or investment studies. Even if Vanguard decided to aggressively target certain niche targets in its sales and marketing campaign, the potential dividends reaped from doing so are far expected to outweigh the costs as it currently spends about 20 cents out of every $10,000 invested to drum up new business which is well below industry norms. Certainly newspaper advertisements as thoseShow MoreRelatedMarketing At The Vanguard Group Essay1989 Words   |  8 PagesMarketing at the Vanguard Group In light of an evolving market, faced with new competitors, and after a careful analysis of their current customers, the Vanguard Group (hereinafter referred to as â€Å"Vanguard†) realizes it must rethink its entire marketing strategy. However, in order to protect and leverage their competitive advantage, which is their low management fees, and to optimize the loyalty that their customers continuously demonstrate toward their organization, they must now target the mostRead MoreVanguard Group Case Study1658 Words   |  7 PagesThe Vanguard Group was founded by John C. Bogle in 1975 with one mission in mind—to build wealth for its clients and only for its clients [1]. It pioneered the industry first index fund and operated in a business model which was unheard of at the time.. low-cost investing for all investors. Its corporate structure is still unique among mutual fund providers. Since Vanguard is not publicly traded or privately owned, all profits are returned back to investors in the form of lowering investing costsRead MoreMutual Funds, Vanguard Paper1375 Words   |  6 PagesVanguard Mutual Fund Evaluation FIN/420 1/26/2014 The Vanguard Group The Vanguard Group offers an array of mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, brokerage, and asset management. When choosing and comparing mutual funds, there are characteristics that you need to first evaluate. This paper will review five different categories of mutual funds that Vanguard Group offers its investors. Actively Managed Common Stock Fund The Selected Value (ticker VASVX) is an actively managed common stockRead Moreessay guinness1277 Words   |  6 PagesSchool Module Title: Principles of Marketing COURSEWORK TWO REFLECTIVE ESSAY Student Name: Jonas Franck-Winther Student ID: 145858611 Seminar Leader Name: Ilya Girson Word Count: 1085 Date: 5/12-2013 1. Principles of marketing The essence of marketing is value creation, where the goal is a long-term satisfaction by building relationships and attracting new customers by offering better value than the competition. Because marketing is based on exchanges where the objectiveRead MoreTraining And Management Of Product Quality1536 Words   |  7 Pagessanitation charting †¢ Handled allergen programs †¢ Created charts to define roles and improve efficiency in communication between QA and RD. Coordinator of Music Events and Concert Operations, Vanguard University June 2013 – November 2014 Salary: $42,000 Yearly †¢ Promotion in same department as previous position at Vanguard. †¢ Created and maintained clear objectives for direct reports. Led team to exceed all benchmarks through a cross-training programs and clear leadership communication. †¢ Excelled at reductionRead MoreBus. 640 Economics942 Words   |  4 PagesThe director of marketing at Vanguard Corporation believes that sales of the company’s Bright Side laundry detergent (S) are related to Vanguard’s own advertising expenditure (A), as well as the combined advertising expenditures of its three biggest rival detergents (R). The marketing director collects 36 weekly observations on S, A, and R to estimate the following multiple regression equation: S = a + bA +cR Where S, A, and R are measured in dollars per week. Vanguard’s marketing director is comfortableRead MoreVanguard Group Case1444 Words   |  6 Pages   1. What do you think of the Vanguard group as a firm? What is the Vanguard group investment philosophy? 2. What are the key differences between Life-Style funds and Life-Cycle funds? 3. Discuss the pros and cons of Life-Style funds. Explain their rationale. 4. Discuss the pros and cons of Life-Cycle funds. Explain their rationale. 5. Are the Life-Style funds or the life-Cycle funds consistent with the theory (MeanVariance approach)? 6. Would you invest in either Life-Style or Life-CycleRead More: Managerial Economics Essay1336 Words   |  6 PagesThe director of marketing at Vanguard Corporation believes the sales of the company’s Bright Side Laundry detergent (S) are related to Vanguard’s own advertising expenditure (A), as well as the combined advertising expenditures of its three biggest rival detergents (R). The marketing director collects 36 weekly observations on S, A, and R to estimate the following multiple regression equation: S = a + bA + cR Where S, A, R are measured in dollars per week. Vanguard’s marketing director is comfortableRead MoreWeek 2 Applied Problems Essay1104 Words   |  5 Pagesfraction of the total variation in sales of Bright Side remains unexplained? What can the marketing director do to increase the explanatory power of the sales equation? What other explanatory variables might be added to this equation? 1-r2 (r-squared) = 1 – 0.2247 = 0.7753 According to the previous calculations, 0.7753 of the total variation in sales of Bright Side remains unexplainable. If the marketing director wants to increase the explanatory power of the sales equation, he or she should considerRead MoreBus640 Managerial Economics Essay example944 Words   |  4 PagesThe director of marketing at Vanguard Corporation believes that sales of the company’s Bright Side laundry detergent (S) are related to Vanguard’s own advertising expenditure (A), as well as the combined advertising expenditures of its three biggest rival detergents (R). The marketing director collects 36 weekly observations on S, A, and R to estimate the following multiple regression equation: S = a + bA + cR where S, A, and R are measured in dollars per week. Vanguard’s marketing director is comfortable

A Comparison between ‘Second Wind’ and ‘Alive!’ Free Essays

I have been working on a piece of Drama called ‘Alive! ‘ based on the story of a South American team being stranded in the Andes for days desperately trying to stay alive, living on little rations and hope with the group having many mixed emotions in the dilemma at hand. I will be comparing this with the novel ‘Second Wind’ which is a thrilling novel about two BBC meteorologists wanting to go into the heart of a hurricane in the States but crash on a isolated Caribbean island. The Historic period of both pieces is very similar as both are quite contemporary being set in the 1970’s, we can see that it is very contemporary in ‘Alive! ‘ through the clothes we wear. We will write a custom essay sample on A Comparison between ‘Second Wind’ and ‘Alive!’ or any similar topic only for you Order Now But there are differences like ‘Alive! ‘ being set in the Andes and ‘Second Wind’ being set in the Caribbean. Our piece is set over a period of a few months but ‘Second Wind’ is set over many months, possibly a year or so. The Society in the two pieces is very different but do have a few similarities with ‘Alive! having young inexperienced youths trying to survive in a desolate mountain range, for example we have the characters that have very different views, people who want to survive like Antonio and escape the mountains and then there are other pessimistic views like Eduardo who think that they are already doomed and there is no hope at all of them surviving, we se this in the scene when the group decide that no one is coming to rescue them and he declares he knew this all along. And in ‘Second Wind’ we have characters like Michael and Perry who want to escape the Island while helping other people to survive this is very similar to Antonio taking the lead of the group and helping others to survive until help arrives. But like Eduardo Kathy in ‘Second Wind’ she to thinks that they are all doomed. In ‘Second Wind’ the characters are split with the meteorologists and the rest of the crew and the entrepreneurs on the other side. In our piece there is some division between within the group but they manage to stick together and get rescued. There are many similarities in the style of both pieces, firstly the most obvious is the tragedy of being wrecked in an abandoned place where no one ever visiting meaning less chance of survival. Both pieces show naturalism within them as both pieces reflect the effect on a deserted island or mountain range, as in ‘Alive! there is lots feelings of lost hope, but in ‘Second Wind’ there is a lot calm reflection we can see this as lots of times we have Perry thinking back to when he was young and playing with his grandmother this reflection can also be seen in ‘Alive! ‘ as there monologues that refer to the thoughts and memories to the stranded victims, this made him happy and forget his dilemma, but he would also come back to realisation. But we must take into account that ‘Second Wind’ is a novel so lots of creative techniques like reflection would help the reader feel the effect of the crash, but in ‘Alive! we use sound and lighting effects this helps visualize the piece, also with a dramatic piece you can see the characters and be drawn into them and feel part of the scene. To conclude there are many similarities between the two pieces such as the historic period, a bit of society and the style. There is also the huge similar theme of a tragedy due to a plane crash on an unfamiliar place. But there still is the difference on ‘Alive! ‘ being a dramatic performance and ‘Second Wind’ a novel so it is difficult to compare. How to cite A Comparison between ‘Second Wind’ and ‘Alive!’, Papers

Virtual Mobile Assistants-Free-Samples for Students-Myassignment

Question: Investigate Advances in One of two Aspects of Mobile Computing Listed in the Assignment Description, and Write a Report Summarizing Your observation. Answer: Introduction A mobile virtual assistant can be defined as the software agents in the handheld mobile devices. The main functionality of this virtual assistant like Cortana, Siri, and Google Now is to help the users of the device to have a single point entry by using the voice input accomplish different tasks using the applications (such as searching, messaging etc.). Progress in the field of the AI (artificial intelligence), natural language processing and neural networks made it easier for the smart phone users to easily accomplish different types of tasks only via providing the voice instructions. As mentioned by Webster et al. (2014), this type of software agents/application are the able to answer users questions, provide recommendations for some specific tasks. In addition to that, these agents are also capable of performing actions as the response to the users voice request while interpreting the request using the natural language processing. All the virtual assents are mainly are mainly developed using the principles of natural language processing. This virtual assistant or the software programs utilize algorithms in order to take in to consideration the specific components from the sentence provided as input to the assistant and then matches with the most suitable output for the users query or request (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). This agent always collects contextual information about its user in order to manage and plan tasks for the user. The virtual assistants mainly uses the semantic web technologies as well as different open data which are available on the Internet. On the other hand, the contextual information about the user are the calendar, location, time, appointments with others individuals, relations among different tasks as well as decomposition between them, history of tasks, user-specific interests for different tasks. Mobile virtual assistants The mobile virtual assistants are helpful for different types of users as they can accomplish different types of tasks. These virtual assistants are becoming more popular because of its simplicity and extensive variety of capabilities (Webster et al., 2014). It could be useful for those that need do things in an easier and speedier way with a single interface. The users who find it harder to type or search on the tiny small smart phone consoles or touchpads. It can likewise be utilized to help the aged individuals and youngsters to utilize the virtual assistant by saying the commands and getting the desired outcome as opposed to propelling between the different applications or going over all through contacts list down to find a particular name when need to make a call. Since the application can work disconnected (without the internet connectivity) Emergence of Mobile virtual assistants The mobile virtual assistants are developed in order to simplify the life of the users by reducing the effort which is needed to complete routine tasks such as placing a call, texting something to someone etc. (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). In addition to that, retrieving data real time data about the weather, traffic movement on the streets, news/other data, remotely controlling smart home devices, requesting product purchases from online store, communication with other applications (for instance, the capacity to book an cab from a cab booking application and interacting another applications.) Technology and concept behind its functionality Every virtual assistant that are used by the smart phone users is mainly using the artificial intelligence to parse the user's instruction that user had said or typed on the console after that it returns the useful information against the users query (Webster et al., 2014). For this AI component the main objective is speech recognition of the user of the device. This type of user related data are very helpful in determining the user behavior of any specific user with higher accuracy level (this includes travels of the user, habits, search or different topic preferences of the user). Even though this is considered as one of the great aspects that helps the service providers such as google and Apple to be able to return impressively useful results for the user depending on their habits and preferences (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). This is also achieved without sniffing into the users email and dipping into the users search history on the devices. Thorough voice-search history of the us ers also permits the organizations to learn the users vocal idiosyncrasies, so that the virtual assistants understand the spoken requests of the users better in the future events. Components used For the mobile virtual assistants, there are mainly three components are used. These are voice recognition, text to speech conversion and natural language processing engine (Webster et al., 2014). For this virtual agents, there are no pre-defined formats in order to request theses agents to do something (complete a task) or answer a users question. Device to get input: smart phones or the Echo Dot or other relevant devices gives a speech-based user interface to the users. Through this interfaces, the user issues voices based commands or makes inquiries, and the device responds to the query in speech (Chung et al., 2017). The devices and the interfaces are always ready for listening user commands, and just when it recognizes the keyword such as Alexa or Ok Google from its user, it transmits the audio file to the respective cloud services for processing. Cloud services to send and receive the user data: The respective cloud services get the audio file from the devices and process the command using the speech recognition technique and mapping voice commands to different actions and information customized for the user. Given the decided aim, the cloud services appoint the third party skilled server, worked by either Google /Amazon for worked in aptitudes or by an outsider for outsider application abilities. Figure 1: processing of user commands by Virtual mobile assistants (Source: Created by Author using Visio) Skill servers for processing of the user input/feature extraction: The skill servers are basically responsible for completing tasks the Google/Alexa servers may perform for a users command, for example, checking the weather condition or requesting a pizza from the store. Some of the basic tasks are offered and completed by Google/Amazon servers and come as inherent usefulness for all the users, and these are taken care of by their own servers. The general arrangement of components Voice recognition: Voice recognition is clearly the simplest and trivial stage of this whole process. When a user gives the virtual agents a command, the device gathers the users analog voice signal, changes it into a sound/audio file (converted into binary code for faster interpretations) and sends it to the processing backend servers (Chung et al., 2017). The subtleties of the users voice, the noises with the command and the neighborhood articulations make hard to interpret it in a correct way. It is called Human User Interface versus the standard Graphical User Interface we are utilized to. It is vital here that, consistently, google and apple gathers a large number of user queries of individuals talking distinctive languages, in various accents from different corners of the world. At the end of the day with their activities and errors in voice commands, individual users contribute to the improvement of the different virtual agents developed by the different organization to provid e ease of use to their users. Mobile virtual assistants today gets about a billion queries for every week, and the backend processing are able to respond to the queries with only a 5 percent mistake rate (Nguyen Sidorova, 2017). As of late, Apple, google and Microsoft are still working on the used algorithms and AIs for improving their performance and user experience. Most of the mobile virtual assistants follow a similar architecture in order to interact with the user and complete different tasks. Literature Review As mentioned in their research paper to determine a model that will help in measuring the quality of the user experience and usability of the mobile virtual personal assistants, the user experience needs to be the most important component in the design and development of virtual mobile assistants. The researchers explored that, visual interaction with the virtual assistants is another component that must be considered as the important segments to the Virtual mobile assistants that is not present in the virtual assistants when contrasted with a human assistant. It is a question worth inquiring as to whether we ought to try and investigate the visual viewpoint keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the quality of interaction with the virtual assistants (Webster et al., 2014). In any case, there are a few different segments of the existing virtual mobile assistants that are known to be the confinement. Initially, building up an ideal tone and pitch to convey that coveted effect of the voice is also important. Furthermore, the precise identification of commands given in different languages and accents restrains the reliance and use of a virtual mobile assistant. In addition to that, the researchers McTear, Callejas and Griol (2016), opined that in any assessment of a mobile virtual assistant framework it is important to critically ensure the user satisfaction while they interact with the assistants (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). Multimodal interfaces consolidate visual and sound-related signals to advance the interactions. However, they raise new difficulties concerning the ease of use and adequacy of such interfaces. From the results of the Project FASiL or Flexible and Adaptive Spoken Language and Multimodal Interfaces project , a virtual assistant framework was created to comprehend which factors influence the client encounter and the acknowledgment of multimodal administrations. Results demonstrate that a conversational and multimodal approach was extremely all around acknowledged and upheld by the users (Chung et al., 2017). Moreover, the quality and speed of the framework criticism and in addition the acknowledgment precision of the talked parts are key components to a better user interaction. As per the investigation of the researchers found that the level of user satisfaction depends on the extent of interactivity, sense of presence of the virtual assistant, degree of reliability, degree of dependency, extent of focused attention , easiness of use, extent of satisfaction and the extent of users expectation being met (Webster et al., 2014). The VPA is relied upon to help and improve the accompanying highlights: Informing the user: Mobile experts can oversee voice message, email and faxes utilizing their VPA from the street. Managing Contact: Scheduling, arranging, aggregate date-book, contact and referral association, all can be dealt and using the virtual mobile assistant. Call Control: The virtual assistants empowers remote users to perform gathering calling and call administration. Warning and sending highlights enable remote clients to be told instantly when they get particular phone messages, messages, faxes, or pages (Nguyen Sidorova, 2017). Web Applications: The virtual mobile assistants enables the users to get to and connect with the web to offer assistance them source data going from climate, headings and calendars, to stock execution, aggressive information and news. All are utilizing basic, conversational voice orders. Security and privacy issues Issue 1 In most of the cases, the virtual assistant sends the users queries or requests to the main server to parse and process the command or the request. After processing the request the suitable response to the query is send back to the users device. When the user's request are sent to the main server for the processing, it is sent with unique device ID so that the response to the query. Even though the user queries that are combined with distinctive device IDs that are not connected to any of the specific users but Apple provisions this user requests to the Siri with the corresponding device IDs at least for six months (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). In addition to that, after six months when the IDs are deleted they keep the audio clip of the users request for additional 18 months. Thus in case the main server or the IT infrastructure of the company. Issue 2 In Most of the cases, it is found that the mobile virtual assistants respond to the indirect speech of the user. These assistants execute commands/orders conveyed by means of a voice message, voice recording. In addition, the assistants can execute the same command more than once, regardless of the possibility that those commands are delivered from the same digital sound file (Coskun-Setirek Mardikyan, 2017). This happens as the assistant is not able to distinguish between a recorded voice and natural voice of a user. In addition to that, these assistants are additionally ready and area able to execute the commands that goes through obstructions. Issue 3 The virtual mobile assistants are also vulnerable to the different hacking attacks which in turn help the hacker to take control of the Users Amazon Echo. After getting control over the Echo, they can convert it into a personal Eavesdropping microphone to spy on a user. In addition to that, it is also found that the virtual assistants like the Googles Assistant and Apple's Siri are also can be hijacked by using the inaudible sounds ( sounds that are not audible to the human due to their too high frequency; more than 20,000Hz ). Researchers from Zhejiang University were able to hack and get the control over Siri the virtual assistant used for the MacBooks and iPhones, Cortana that is used for windows PC, Bixby of Samsung phones and Amazon Echo speakers (Coskun-Setirek Mardikyan, 2017). Even though the exploitation of the vulnerabilities of this mobile assistants requires attackers high level knowledge of embedded systems as well as Linux operating, but after gaining the control over this tools Issue 4 Again the virtual mobile assistants are not able to differentiate the users from their voice. Therefore, it is possible for the other users to order or command anything through this virtual assistant. As a result, the unauthorized and unauthenticated users can order and provide different commands to the users. Early in this year, a TV channel of California Channel CW-6 was reporting a childrens order of doll house and some cookies, eventually the other Alexa of the devices of at the viewers homes also collected the anchors command as the command from its users and ordered dollhouses and resulted in huge amount of orders for the dollhouse. Reasons behind its popularity Following are the reasons behind the success of these virtual mobile assistants, Least amount of effort required for the user to complete a task: The main objective of these virtual mobile assistants are to make the life of the user easier. A key prerequisite is that the administration does not take much time from the user (Webster et al., 2014). Use of the virtual assistants helps the user to not to be loaded with programming contents of any sort nor with acquiring any sort of specialized learning about the framework to use the virtual assistants. Keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish this usefulness the framework ought to learn autonomously from the user input. Supervision by the users: In the use of the virtual assistants one of the most important features is that the user holds control over the behavior of the virtual assistants. Adaptive: The framework adjusts rapidly to the changing inclinations of the users need. Benefits of Virtual mobile assistant A mobile virtual assistant is considered as a mix of natural language processing with the artificial intelligence. With the above mentioned two tools, it is feasible for the virtual assistants to be able to process an expansive volumes of information and to answer or solve the user queries with a more than 90 percent precision rate. In other words, a mobile virtual assistant is a customized, computerized digital character, which gives data and assistance in completing tasks to their users (Chung et al., 2017). This aide underpins clients' inquiries on themes, for example, organization points of interest including money related and financial specialist related subtle elements, item portfolios, and innovation related data. They give better client engagement when contrasted with client officials. These virtual assistants made the life of the people easier as they can send an instant message or email utilizing voice orders to their assistants, check their timetable or routine for a given day, use different applications installed in their devices, and turn different settings off and on as per their needs (Coskun-Setirek Mardikyan, 2017). Started with the Siri, in the year 2011 now there are various assistants are available for the users for different platforms (such as Google assistant for android devices, Bixby for the Samsung devices etc.) Limitations Most of the virtual assistants need the continuous and uninterrupted internet connections as the commands of the users are sent over to the servers at the apple headquarters in order to process the command so that the virtual assistant can respond with the appropriate response to the user (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). If the user does not have a stable internet connection, then Siri or other virtual assistants would not be able to respond to the user request. Issues impacting its future There are different types of attack that are able to intercept the data pockets between the mobile assistant and other services. These intercepted data packets can be then analyzed in order to recover sensitive data sent over the transmission medium (Coskun-Setirek Mardikyan, 2017). In worst case scenario the listeners or the hackers may tray and able to recover personal any individuals personal details, economic payment information for the purchases by the users from transmitted data packets. Possible feature of this technology With all the above mentioned limitations and issues with the mobile virtual assistants, with this trend of research and development in the field of the virtual assistants, it is possible that the mobile virtual assistants in the future will continually prompt the users to provide suggestions for a specific tasks and taking command/instructions from the users of the device. In this course of action, the virtual mobile assistant will know more about their users than perhaps they do about themselves by analyzing the different aspects (Webster et al., 2014). Thus the future of the mobile virtual assistants would not be separate and distinct. On the contrary they will be embodied and unified as one entity. With ongoing development in the field of the speech recognition and natural language processing will help in the better understanding of the users command to the assistants. This improvements will help the virtual assistants to improve their adaptive learning process. According to the USA based media and analytics company comScore, there will be 200 billion searches by the year 2020, of which 50 billion searches will be done through the voice based searches. In the future, there will be a more noteworthy requirement for different online platforms to collect or harness user information, caught at various points, for example, following client activities at different times, product or other preferences, and so on (O'Sullivan Grigoras, 2013). Information could be utilized over the different times and user activities for the learning process of the AI and take preventive measures to avoid the unwanted errors while executing the user commands. For instance, the AI behind the virtual assistant could use these data in different user product purchases where the analysis of the user data will make the process of purchasing a product easier by sorting the products on the on line stores as per the preferences of the users as collected and analyzed from the d ata (Bellegarda, 2014). The mobile virtual assistants could likewise be utilized as a part of other capacities, for example, in users different decision making, where the mobile virtual assistants could give mechanized answers to the other recipients which would help in the reducing the expenses and improve responsiveness of the virtual assistant . Contextually it can be said that presently there are development in the field of the augmented reality based mobile virtual assistant that will be capable of answering the queries and complete other related tasks asked by the user of it. In the development of the virtual assistants that acts in the augmented reality for the user, an intuitive and unobtrusive multimodal interface for the users. The users of the device will provide voice command to the assistant (Coskun-Setirek Mardikyan, 2017). Using voice recognition process, the feature extraction is done from the given command. In the response process the, text to speech process is utilized in order to provide the response to their users. The virtual assistant selects the objects in the real environment of the user by using the gaze based approach while determining the location of the user by using the GPS feature of the device. Viewing direction of the assistant is determined by the orientation sensor of the device. Conclusion One of the best features of the mobile virtual assistants are, these assistants are able to learn and adapt to the different situations without any human supervision. These enable the users of the devices of smart phones and tablets, to speak the natural language as the voice commands for operating the applications and other services. This also helps in order to operate the mobile device and its different applications to complete different tasks. Device users can speak commands and can have audible confirmation responses from the agent in order to send messages, set reminders, call someone, operate music and video applications on the phone, tablets. References Bellegarda, J. R. (2014). Spoken language understanding for natural interaction: The siri experience. InNatural Interaction with Robots, Knowbots and Smartphones(pp. 3-14). Springer, New York, NY. Canbek, N. G., Mutlu, M. E. (2016). On the track of Artificial Intelligence: Learning with intelligent personal assistants.Journal of Human Sciences,13(1), 592-601. Causey III, J. D., Purvis, R. E., Henke, J. L. (2013).U.S. Patent No. 8,579,813. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 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